best response confirmed by Therese_Solimeno (Moderator)
Technically this should be feasible, but you will need to make first a POC to be sure you can read the barcode from the PDFs using a PDF library (Open / third party) for that. Once you have solved the Bar Code reading, the rest of the requirements are feasibly by designing for instance a processing architecture that gets every PDF uploaded to a "Hot folder" in SPO. For every PDF file:
(1) The Bar Code is read by the business logic designed and implemented in the processsing layer.
(2) The Bar Code read is interpreted so the business logic can either decide a folder on a destination document library or doing something extra
(3) The file is moved to the destination folder

As an example of third party library that can process barcodes in PDF files:

Hope it helps!