best response confirmed by I_tried (Occasional Contributor)
Use this method to check the file version:
wmic datafile where name="C:\\Windows\\System32\\drivers\\ntdsai.dll" get version
It work better for a patched image on windows... I am guessing you will see a higher version.

The error in the log also suggest you have gone past this version test.
The proxy you supplied as parameter looks OK. we can reach the backend vis 443 for the initial communication which is based on TLS + access key.
the communication breaks when we switch to mutual certificate authentication.
This is likely happening if your proxy is doing SSL inspection which we do not support....
Another issue might be that you are missing root CAs.

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